Web Stuff 06.09.2015 1972
Welcome to our second part of how to install Virtualmin on Ubuntu 14.04 and run your own web hosting environment.
Your server is up and running but not quite finished yet. In the second part we will go through the virtualmin / webmin configuration, create second user in SSH, disable root login and add virtual memories to your server.
Please login via web browser to your new server (you should know how that works, otherwise you will find it in part one) and go to:
Webmin - Webmin Configuration - Webmin Themes - Change Theme
On the dropdown choose Authentic Theme, press Change. After reloading the page already looks much better than before, however you might need to refresh your browser once to completely load the new theme.
Do the same for Usermin:
Webmin - Usermin Configuration - Usermin Themes
Choose also the Authentic Theme and press Change.
After that you can update the theme to the latest version, therefore click on the Webmin button in the top left corner in the center of your screen you will see an update button next to the theme you currently use.
Now it looks much nicer doesn't it?!
Ok, it is now time to run the post installation wizard in Virtualmin go to:
Virtualmin - System Settings - (Re-)Run Install Wizard
Following options you should choose with your 1GB VPS.
Preload Virtualmin libraries? Yes
Run email domain lookup server? Yes
Run ClamAV server scanner? Yes
Run SpamAssassin server filter? Yes
Run MySQL database server? Yes
Set MySQL Password (something strong)
MySQL configuration size? Depends what you want to do, small systems 256MB will usually do,busy websites will need 512MB to 1gb
Primary nameserver: ns1.yourdomain.com
Secondary nameservers (optional): ns2.yourdomain.com
Skip check for resolvability: checked
Password storage mode: Only store hashed passwords
Press next and your webmin / virtualmin setup is almost done.
The last step is changing the ports on how to connect to your webmin and usermin, it is just an extra small security. This step doesn't need to be done.
Webmin - Webmin Configuration - Ports and Addresses - Listen on Port
Default port here is 10000 change it to anything you like but it should be above 2000.
Same for Usermin, please go to:
Webmin - Usermin Configuration - Ports and Addresses - Listen on Port
Default port here is 20000 change it to anything you like but it should be above 2000 and not the same as the webmin port.
The next step and that should be always done with any server is to create a second user via SSH and disable root login. Changing the SSH port from 22 to something else is not necessary and should be avoided I think.
Ok, it is time to login to your server via Terminal and create the second user again one line at the time.
gpasswd -a demo sudo
chmod 700 .ssh
What have we done?
Now we need the public SSH key again from your local machine. You remember how to get it? Hint, go to part one and you will find it how to get it.
Ok, we got the public SSH key from your local machine let's move on to the server side, copy/paste or type following line in your terminal connected to your server:
Paste your public key from the clipboard into the empty file and press CTRL - X.
We have now saved your public key for the user demo, so the demo user can also connect to your server but only with your machine. In this file you can add more public keys from other machines if you administrate from more than one machine.
The last step is to change permission for this file, so no one else can change it.
chmod 600 .ssh/authorized_keys
Before we disable the root login open a second terminal window and connect to your server now with the new user:
If that works fine, we can proceed with disabling the root login. In your first terminal where you still connected with root, type or copy/paste following line:
Find PermitRootLogin Yes and change it to PermitRootLogin No
Hit CTRL - X to save the change restart the SSH service and we should have a pretty secure web server.
service ssh restart
At last we add some virtual memory to speed up your web server in case an application needs all the memory your server has. First we need to connect to the server via terminal we do it with your new user, you know the drill easy as.
Hey, there is something new! What is sudo -i ? Because we are not root anymore but most changes need to be done under root we change to root with sudo -i, you will be asked for the root password when you enter sudo -i.
Now let's add some virtual memory for your web server. If you are on digitalocean, enter following (again line by line):
sudo fallocate -l 2G /swapfile
sudo chmod 600 /swapfile
sudo mkswap /swapfile
sudo swapon /swapfile
sudo sh -c 'echo "/swapfile none swap sw 0 0" >> /etc/fstab'
Should your server be with vultr you need to do it this way:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile count=2048 bs=1M
ls / | grep swapfile
chmod 600 /swapfile
ls -lh /swapfile
/swapfile none swap sw 0 0
We reserve 2GB of hard drive space for virtual memory. 2GB is usally enough but you can add more or less of course, you should just know that the space you are reserve is not available for other web stuff.
At last we reboot the server and when you go back to virtualmin via your web browser you will have virtual memory showed in your dashboard.
In the third and last part of how to install Webmin / Virtualmin on Ubuntu 14.04 we will cover how to setup nameservers, setup domain, ssl certificate and email accounts. Read you soon...